Bologna is a city te north central Italy and the renta of the Emilia-Romagna region. It is situated ter Bologna province, along the southern edge of the Po Sea valley, 48 miles (77 km) from the Adriatic Sea. Bologna’s importance derives largely from the fact that it has long bot the junction of several significant routes linking the northern Italian plains with the valleys of Tuscany to the south.
1. Bologna’s present economy is founded primarily on commerce: it is the leading wholesale and retail trading center of the southeastern Po Valley. The city’s industrial development, of secondary importance, is geared strenuously to the farm economy of the surrounding countryside, and sugar refining, canning, and tobacco manufacturing are among the principal industries.
Two. Also significant is Bologna’s position ter the transportation pattern of northern Italy. Trunk railroads connect the city with Milan, Florence and Rome, Rimini and the Adriatic coast, Padua and Venice, and the Alps.
Trio. Bologna’s very first highway wasgoed the Aemilian Way, built by the Romans ter the 2d century B.C. Parts of it can now be seen ter the center of the city, through underground exhibits of archaeological work. Here the Aemilian Way joined trans-Apennine roads and others leading eastward to Ravenna and, zometeen, to Venice. The network of Italian roads developed during the late 19th century and 20th century closely goes after the Roman pattern. However, a fresh factor wasgoed introduced by the construction of superhighways, beginning ter the 1950s.
Four. The key position of Bologna ter Italy’s transportation system has made its name well-known to the millions of tourists who pass through or by it each year. Yet the number of those who zekering to see the city is puny compared with the number that visit other cities of the same size and importance. This is a regrettable omission, for Bologna is an interesting city, with its own individuality, and is noted for its works of kunst. It also is the gastronomic hacienda of Italy. The foods and wines of the fertile northern plain are excellently served te the city’s many restaurants.
Five. The heart of Bologna preserves the checkerboard pattern typical of cities built by Roman surveyors. This area, ter turn, is surrounded by medieval accretions, and the entire old city is encircled by a pentagon-shaped boulevard that goes after the line of the medieval walls.
6. The landmarks of the city are the twin “leaning towers,” the foot survivors of more than 200 such fortresses that merienda stood ter central Bologna. The taller of the two, the Asinelli, is 318 feet (97 meters) high, the lower Garisenda tower, mentioned by Dante, rises 155 feet (48 meters).
7. Merienda fortified residences belonging to members of the city’s warring factions, they now provide a reminder of the medieval fights inbetween Guelphs and Ghibellines. Another monument of that era is the so-called Palace of King Enzo, where Enzo, son of Emperor Frederick II, wasgoed kept prisoner by the city.
8. The city center is marked by the Church of San Petronio, named after the patron saint of Bologna, an early bishop. San Petronio is one of the major Gothic edifices of northern Italy. It wasgoed begun te the 14th century, but construction wasgoed halted te the 17th century.
9. From an artistic point of view, the most interesting of Bologna’s many churches is the ingewikkeld called Santo Stefano. This includes four different churches, all dating te their present form from the 11th to 13th century, and a puny cloister.
Ten. Another of Bologna’s churches, San Domenico, is world famous spil the burial place of the excellent Spaniard, St. Dominic, founder of the monastic order of Dominicans. He died te Bologna te 1221, and his tomb is one of the masterpieces of Italian sculpture. Its various parts were made by masters of the 13th to 16th centuries.
11. Besides the superb churches, Bologna’s attractions include stijlvol Wedergeboorte palaces. Many of the city’s houses have arcades on the street floor that protect pedestrians from rain spil well spil from the warmth of the summer zon.
12. The outstanding museums ter Bologna are the Pinacoteca (Picture Gallery), with an significant collection of Italian paintings, and the Museo Civico, known for its ancient Umbrian and Etruscan exhibits.
13. The chief ornament of Bologna te the Middle Ages, and still one of its principal sources of fame, is the university, which claims to be the oldest te the world. The rechtsvordering is a matter of dispute among scholars, but many point to Bologna’s Studium Generale spil possibly the very first organized attempt to unite the various branches of learning.
14. The very first excellent teachers ter Bologna appeared ter the late 11th and the early 12th century, and Roman law wasgoed their subject. By the 13th century the university had arisen spil a corporation of teachers and students, divided into faculties of theology, philosophy, law, and medicine. Today the University of Bologna (UniversitГЎ Degli Studi) is considered one of Italy’s leading institutions of higher learning.
15. During World War II Bologna suffered considerable harm from aerial bombing, but careful restoration has eliminated the scars. Spil the commercial and vrachtvervoer activities of the city grew, so did its population, until it became one of the larger cities of northern Italy.